Xi Jinping in the U.S., part 3
Selected articles related to president Xi Jinping's visit to the United States.
White House factsheet, September 25
The United States and China agree that neither country’s government will conduct or knowingly support cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property, including trade secrets or other confidential business information, with the intent of providing competitive advantages to companies or commercial sectors.
Both sides are committed to making common effort to further identify and promote appropriate norms of state behavior in cyberspace within the international community.
... President Obama and President Xi decided to continue expanding law enforcement and anti-corruption cooperation, including by enhancing coordination and cooperation on criminal investigations, repatriation of fugitives, and asset recovery issues. The United States and China welcomed recent progress on repatriating Chinese fugitives and illegal immigrants through charter flights and look forward to continuing this cooperation. The United States welcomes China’s commitment to consider joining the OECD Working Group on Bribery as a participant in the near future.
... A “One Million Strong” initiative led by the 100,000 Strong Foundation that aims to have one million American students studying Mandarin by 2020. “One Million Strong” goals include doubling the number of Mandarin language teachers in the United States through a major investment in teachers colleges; employing technological tools to engage students in underserved and underrepresented communities; and creating “100K Strong States,” a subnational consortium of U.S. governors committed to expanding Mandarin language-learning in their states.
Advancing Domestic Climate Action: The United States and China are committed to achieving their respective post-2020 actions as announced in last November’s Joint Announcement. Since that time, both countries have taken key steps toward implementation and are committing to continue intensifying efforts, which will substantially promote global investment in low-carbon technologies and solutions.
Since last November’s Joint Announcement, the United States has taken major steps to reduce its emissions, and it is announcing important additional implementation plans today. In August 2015, the United States finalized the Clean Power Plan, which will reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector to 32% below 2005 levels by 2030. In 2016, the United States will finalize a federal plan to implement carbon emission standards for power plants in states that do not choose to design their own implementation plans under the Clean Power Plan. The United States commits to finalize its next-stage, world-class fuel efficiency standards for heavy-duty vehicles in 2016 and implement them in 2019. In August 2015, the United States proposed separate standards for methane emissions from landfills and the oil and gas sector, and commits to finalize both standards in 2016.
Paulson Institute: Carbon Emissions Trading: Rolling Out a Successful Carbon Trading System
The cap-and-trade initiative builds on a deal that Mr. Obama and Mr. Xi reached last year in Beijing, where both set steep emissions-reduction targets as a precursor to the global climate accord. ...
... China has been developing and carrying out smaller cap-and-trade programs for at least three years. In 2012, it started pilot programs in seven provinces, intended to serve as tests for a national program.
China would set a start date of 2017 for an already planned national carbon trading rollout, and make commitments to prioritise renewable power, curb greenhouse gas emissions from heavy vehicles and limit public investment in polluting projects.
The initiatives are designed to help China meet a goal of ensuring its emissions peak around 2030, a target set in a landmark bilateral deal with the US last November.
“There is a need for a common understanding between the two countries on air-to-air encounters,” a senior defense official said. Unclear is how the new air agreement would affect the disputed islands in the South China Sea, known in the West as the Spratly Islands. U.S. officials said the agreement applies to any international airspace, which by U.S. definitions would include the area within 12 nautical miles of the islands. But Beijing considers those zones to be Chinese waters and airspace, so would consider encroachment by others to be a violation of its territory, meaning the agreement wouldn’t be applicable.
Vice-president Joe Biden spent more than 20 hours with Mr Xi in 2012, during a visit to China and a return trip by the then Chinese vice-president to the US when he took in a Los Angeles Lakers game and posed for photos with David Beckham and Magic Johnson.
US officials who were involved in the two trips say Mr Xi gave little away about his political ideas but was eager to present himself as a more approachable and, at times, jovial figure than Mr Hu, with whom meetings had become a ritual exercise in reading talking points.
Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Euijin Jung, Peterson Institute: What Obama did and did not accomplish in cyber-espionage talks with Xi
A major achievement is that China now publicly distinguishes between military and commercial cyber-espionage, and promises not to engage in the latter. The exact lines of demarcation remain to be identified, and they might only be determined on a case-by-case basis. Presumably Northrup Grumman and its Chinese counterparts will still be fair game for cyber espionage. But what about telecom companies? Whatever the precise line, most US business firms should experience far fewer Chinese-inspired attempts to extract trade secrets through cyber espionage. Moreover, with China’s cooperation, the United States should be better able to identify and target perpetrators based on concrete technical evidences.
Missing from the agreement is a promise from China to hold its companies or individuals accountable for the cyber theft of commercial information. Chinese firms that do business in the United States can be held accountable under US law, but most cyber espionage is conducted by cut-out entities. It is highly doubtful that China will extradite perpetrators to the United States for trial.
The establishment of high level working group represents a replay of a prior initiative. The two countries established a joint dialogue with the same objective in 2013, but that dialogue was shut down in 2014 following the U.S. indictment of Chinese military officials.
At the press conference, in which two reporters from each country were allowed to ask questions, both US reporters asked Obama about Boehner’s resignation, pairing them with other questions related to cybersecurity and the Chinese economy’s downturn.
... Earlier in the week, the pope was the main source of American attention as Xi arrived to start his own official US trip.
Bruce Jones: Xi on the global stage: The costs of leadership
Shannon Tiezzi and Jeffrey Wasserstrom: Chinese President Xi Jinping has never met a country he didn’t like
Photo credit: Nicolas Raymond