# Cleaner air coming to China?

## Curbing risks together - voluntary and coordinated targets

On China's plan to deal with the pollution crisis, the OECD reports: "China has formalised efforts to mitigate climate change in recent five-year plans. For example, the 12th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development (2011-15), expressed the need to pursue low-carbon development. It established a binding target of a 17% decrease in CO2 emissions per unit of GDP from 2010 levels by the end of 2015. The plan includes several policy measures, such as gradually establishing carbon emissions trading systems (ETSs). China’s State Council has also announced that annual coal consumption will be capped at below 4.2 billion tonnes until 2020 (Xinhuanet, 2014)."

Eduardo Porter: Climate Deal Badly Needs a Big Stick

Lawrence MacDonald and Jing Cao, CGD: The Sudden Rise of Carbon Taxes, 2010–2030

## Consumption and oversight

Bloomberg: Beijing Plans to Require Car Buyers to Secure Parking Space

BBC: China struggles to contain the environmental damage of its rapid growth - ""The real concern is consumer behaviour. People want a modern, comfortable way of life…a big car, a large apartment, air-conditioning in the summer, heating in the winter. All of this is new in China. It's not wrong but it's so vast and so sudden. We are just not prepared for the consumption of energy and natural resources," Prof Pan says."

Caixin: China 'to Hold Officials Accountable for Life for Environmental Problems' - "NDRC official says local leaders who fail to stop water and soil pollution cannot be promoted or hold other jobs ... Zhang said that several central government agencies including the NDRC are also working on establishing specific punishments for local officials whose work leads to environmental damage. These punishments will range from warnings to handing cases to prosecutors so criminal charges can be pursued, he said."

SCMP: Crackdown on corruption at Chinese environmental risk assessment agencies - "Sixty-three agencies censured for malpractice after graft-busters criticise 'flawed' system in which friends of officials intervened in reviews."

## Production will have to change

Bloomberg: "China’s “traditional, extensive way of seeking growth has been proved unsustainable,” warned Premier Li Keqiang during a speech in Tianjin in September. “We will eliminate overcapacity,” he told an audience of multinational and Chinese company executives.""

Reuters: China's Hebei to force firms to buy emission permits from 2016 - "Starting in 2016, steelmakers, power suppliers and manufacturers of cement and glass will be forced to pay for permits to cover the amount of pollution they emit, and the government will set the amount of permits required by other industries by this year, the newspaper said. China has already rolled out pilot emission permit markets in 11 provinces, covering air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, as well as water pollution indicators such as chemical oxygen demand and ammonia."

Hal Harvey, Paulson Institute: Top Ten Principles for Clean Air in China

Establish a sound local air quality management structure: Every region needs an unambiguous clean air authority. Large regions covering several cities (e.g. Jing-Jin-Ji region) should have a unified authority with the ability to set standards, issue permits, and enforce reductions; Ensure sufficient human and financial resources: Public and private expenditures on pollution control must be sufficient to achieve the ultimate objective of clean and healthy air. This will require increased budgets, better planning and analysis, and more high-quality inspectors. Proper design of enforcement programs can minimize the chance of evasion or corruption;
The Economist: Could China, known as a land of coal and smog, be a wind power example for other countries? "Wind power has tripled its share of China’s electricity generation since 2010, to 3% of the total. If that still seems puny, it is enough to power 110m Chinese homes. "

BBC: China ‘deserves more credit’ for renewable energy effort

The Economist: China gets a larger share of its energy from renewables than America does

FT: Early leaders in wind and solar equipment faced overcapacity

April, 2015; Xinhuanet: "Starting from next year, all vehicles in the 11 provinces and municipalities of eastern China should use fuels, including gasoline and diesel, that adhere to China's leading '5th-phase' standards, with sulphur content within 10 ppm (parts per million), starting from next year."

March, 2015; Xinhuanet: Ministry plans five-year air pollution control project

Feb. 2015; FT: Chinese demand fuels renewables sector turnround